The USMCA will have an impact on how member countries negotiate future free trade agreements. Article 32.10 requires USMCA countries to give usmCA members three months` notice if they intend to enter into free trade negotiations with non-market economies. Article 32.10 allows USMCA countries to review all new free trade agreements that members accept. It is widely speculated that Article 32.10 deliberately targets China.  In fact, a senior White House official said of the USMCA agreement: “We were very concerned about China`s efforts to essentially undermine the position of the United States by making deals with others.”  U.S. financial services companies provide essential services to all sectors of the economy, including small and medium-sized enterprises. The United States exported about $115 billion worth of financial services in 2016 and generated a surplus of about $41 billion in financial services trade. Fox News reported on December 9, 2019, that negotiators from the three countries have reached an agreement on the implementation of the law, paving the way for a final agreement within 24 hours and ratification by all three parties before the end of the year. Mexico has agreed to the application of a minimum wage of $16 an hour for Mexican autoworkers by a “neutral” third party.
Mexico, which imports all of its aluminum, has also spoken out against regulations on U.S. steel and aluminum content in automotive components.  On April 24, 2020, U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer officially informed Congress that the new trade agreement would be released on April 1, 2020. July 2020, and he also informed Canada and Mexico.   The agreement between the United States, Mexico and Canada, also known as the USMCA, is a trade agreement between the three countries signed on November 30, 2018. The USMCA replaced the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which had been in force since January 1994. Under NAFTA, tariffs on many goods transported between North America`s three major economic powers have been gradually dismantled. In 2008, tariffs on various agricultural and textile, automotive and other products had been reduced or eliminated. During the 2016 presidential campaign, Donald Trump promised to renegotiate NAFTA, which he called “the worst trade deal ever.” As president, he did. The result is the USMCA, which Trump signed in January and touted as one of his most significant achievements in his State of the Union address.
In particular, the chapter has the strongest trade secret protection of any previous U.S. trade agreement. It includes all of the following safeguards against misappropriation of trade secrets, including by state-owned enterprises: civil procedures and remedies, criminal procedures and sanctions, prohibitions on impeding the licensing of trade secrets, legal proceedings to prevent the disclosure of trade secrets during litigation, and sanctions for government officials in the event of unauthorized disclosure of trade secrets. A narrower but significant difference from NAFTA will affect the auto industry. Under NAFTA, 62.5% of a car had to be manufactured in North America. The new rule requires that 75% of a car`s components be manufactured in all three countries to reap the benefits of free trade. The USMCA is expected to have very little impact on the economy.  An International Monetary Fund (IMF) working paper released at the end of March 2019 stated that the agreement would have a “negligible” impact on the economy as a whole.   The IMF study predicted that the USMCA would “affect trade in the automotive, textile, and apparel industries while generating modest overall gains in wealth, primarily through better access to the commodity market with negligible effect on real GDP.”  The IMF study found that the economic benefits of the USMCA would be greatly enhanced if Trump`s trade war ended (i.e. whether the U.S. abolished tariffs on steel and aluminum imports from Canada and Mexico, and Canada and Mexico dropped retaliatory tariffs on imports from the U.S.
 The provisions of the agreement cover a wide range, including agricultural products, homelessness, industrial products, working conditions, digital trade and others. The most important aspects of the agreement include giving U.S. dairy farmers better access to the Canadian market, policies to have a greater share of automobiles produced between the three countries and not imported from other countries, and maintaining the dispute settlement system, which is similar to the system included in NAFTA.   The United States, Mexico and Canada have reached agreement on a modernized, high-quality intellectual property (IP) chapter that ensures strong and effective protection and enforcement of IP rights, which are essential to foster innovation, create economic growth, and support American jobs. The United States, Mexico and Canada have agreed on the most advanced, comprehensive and modern environmental chapter of all trade agreements. Like the working chapter, the environment chapter places all environmental provisions at the heart of the agreement and makes them enforceable. The new textile provisions encourage greater North American production in the textiles and apparel trade, strengthen customs enforcement, and facilitate broader consultation and cooperation between the Parties on issues related to trade in textiles and clothing. On June 1, 2020, the USTR office issued the Uniform Regulation, which is the last hurdle before the agreement is implemented on July 1, 2020. The Environment Chapter contains the most comprehensive enforceable environmental commitments of any previous U.S. treaty, including commitments to combat illegal trade in wildlife, timber and fish; strengthen law enforcement networks to curb this human trafficking; and address pressing environmental issues such as air quality and marine litter.
Several difficulties arose before and shortly after the entry into force of the Treaty on 1 July 2020. First, President Trump said on May 31, 2019, that the United States would impose a 5% tariff on all Mexican imports starting June 10. He threatened the tariff increase if the Mexican government did not take stricter measures to reduce the number of Central American asylum seekers entering the United States from Mexico. On June 8, 2020, an agreement was reached to avoid tariffs. On August 6, 2020, President Trump announced that he would reintroduce the tariffs on Canadian aluminum originally introduced in 2018. The Canadian government responded, saying it planned to impose the same tariffs on U.S. aluminum products. On October 27, the day the Canadian government was due to present its retaliatory measures, President Trump suspended the tariffs retroactively to September 1. However, the U.S. Trade Representative`s office said the U.S.
could reintroduce tariffs if aluminum imports from Canada “exceed 105 percent of the projected volume in a month.” The agreement is referred to differently by each signatory – in the United States, it is called the Agreement between the United States, Mexico and Canada (USMCA).   in Canada, it is officially known as the Canada-United States-Mexico Agreement (CASMAA) in English and the Canada-United States-Mexico Agreement (CUSMA) in French;  and in Mexico, it is called Tratado entre México, Estados Unidos y Canadá (T-MEC).   The agreement is sometimes referred to as the “New NAFTA”, in reference to the previous trilateral agreement it aims to replace, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The Agreement between the United States of America, the United Mexican States and Canada, commonly referred to as the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA), is a free trade agreement between Canada, Mexico and the United States as the successor to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).    The agreement was called “NAFTA 2.0″, or “New NAFTA” because many provisions were included in NAFTA and its amendments were considered largely progressive. On 1 July 2020, the USMCA entered into force in all Member States. Under the leadership of President Donald J. . . .